Here is an idea I had for a sci-fi novel. Never got around to writing it, still think it’s a good idea though!
2,000 words each
2 worlds – utopia & dystopia
After 5 years old children are determined if they are going to utopia or dystopia
1 family with a boy and girl. The girl goes to dystopia the boy goes to utopia
A man single parent mother died tries to reunite his family
The year is 2060
Dystopia is full of suicide, death, violence
Utopia is the perfect world
The government wants to destroy the dystopian world. But if they destroy dystopia will the utopia cease to exist?
DIS (stralis) where the bad people go.
The father left his child and wife and now lives in dystopia. The boy will remain in utopia with his mother. The brother & sister have a universal pull.
The council do not believe people change. Once they reach the age of 5 they are assessed and taken to either of the two worlds.
End of chapter one army guy and daughter are taken to dystopia where she is placed with her father.
They have a long journey ahead.
Father embarks on a journey to reunite his family. Is he in fact a changed man?
Guide: enteraining, action, comedy.
15 chapters of 2,000 words.
Haven’t we always had two worlds on earth? Go back through history. The haves and the have nots. Yes but that was never distinguished by good people and bad people. A good society and a bad society. Who is ever entirely good? And who is ever entirely evil?
First 5 chapters, set up world, characters and story.
Why don’t people from dystopia get taken to utopia? Why is it only a one way world, and people only get taken away from utopia?
What are you doing dad? Dancing. Why? Because we have to find joy in the world we are living in. Dancing brings me joy. Feel the spirit inside yourself as you dance and release it around you, then we can share it.
There are two societies in earth
Her eyes swell. Liquid fills her eyes. She keeps blinking because she doesn’t want to acknowledge the tears. She doesn’t want to acknowledge the reality. The truth that she has been burying for years, is finally upon her. She can no longer hide from it. As the tear slowly crawls down her cheek she wipes it away. Her body chills. Deep, heavy sobs. Guttural cries. She is now unable to breathe as her sinuses fill. She grabs a tissue and blows her nose.
“I’m sorry Julia, we’ve been instructed to take her. You know the rules.”
“Do you know who my father is? He is on the council of the two worlds.”
“He is well aware of the situation.”
The armed man takes the hand of a 5 year old girl and walks her out of the house.
He lifts her up and places her in the front seat of an armoured vehicle.
“Make sure you put your seat belt on missy.”
“Where am I going?”
The man looks into the distance. He has a vacant stare. In a low murmur he says, “we are going to see your father.”
“I have a daddy?” The girl responds.
The armed officer looks surprised but he doesn’t respond to her. “Belt on, we have a long ride ahead.”
Julia looks up to the sky, “The Gods, please save my child.”
Below is a short film I wrote but never actually filmed.
Angel has had a tough life. His father was an alcoholic. He used to beat his mother. He left her and ended up raising another kids parents. His father was not in his life growing up. He has a lot of unresolved anger within him. He got into trouble from a young age. He would get into fights constantly. Women loved him, he hated them and treated them like shit. He never respected them. He has a wife and 3 kids, he constantly abuses her, physically and emotionally. She loves him. He had just returned from 12 months in jail for aggravated assault. He got into an argument earlier with his wife about the guns he carries in the house..he grabbed a knife from the kitchen and he killed her. He is in constant denial that he killed her, maybe he doesn’t even believe he killed her. His mother brought him up as a devout catholic, no matter the evil he does, he always goes to church on Sunday. He believes in God.
Detective Jackson, has been a homicide cop for a while. He has as evidence a knife that was used to kill Angel’s wife. There is no DNA evidence though. The three children saw Angel kill their mother. They are 2, 4 and 8. The 8 year old told detective Jackson what happened. He originally said it was a family friend who killed his mom, but then he said it was his father. Angel’s aunt has since convinced the family that the son will not testify. The only way detective Jackson will get a conviction is if he gets a confession from Angel. It is now 3 weeks since the murder.
Jackson married his childhood sweetheart. They were together since high school, they married when they were 24. He absolutely loved her. He did everything for her. She left him, he has never gotten over it. He is jaded with life. Every time he puts away scum he puts away the guy that his wife left him for. See Jackson was too safe for her, too kind, too nice, she left him for a smooth talking drug dealer, a petty crim, who excited her. They have since moved interstate. He has never seen her since they left. He has no children, although he’s always wanted to.
As the interrogation goes on detective Jackson realises he will not get a confession from Angel.. he starts to question the value of his own life..and whether losing his life to end Angel’s would matter… secretly he wants Angel’s life .. he wants what he never had.. a wife that loved him as much as she did..3 children..
Opening shot of white board..
Black pen writes a list…love..happiness..memories..friends..caring..hope…humanity..children..innocence
We only see the back of the man..
What matters to you?
A lot of things…
Angel is wearing the same jacket as the man writing on the board..
My wife..my family..my parents..
Yeah my kids
What about when you were younger?
Nothing mattered to me back then…
And that’s why you have such a long history of violence… Look at this record.. assault..battery..theft..antisocial behaviour
And you didn’t make those mistakes when you were a younger B?
you lived a charmed life right..had good role models.. good parents that were around.. good education
No.. I never had parents.. They were always at work…I was left to my own…devices
But you did spend your life helping people…I can see it in your eyes.. you are jaded detective, because assholes like me get everything that you want.
What have you got Angel, a dead wife, distraught children, an impending death penalty.. Naah thats not what I want.
You were one of those nice guys in school that got no play, and now your bitter and twisted, that.. shit I was probably banging your girl while you were stuck home alone..and now you got to take it out on me when I got nothing to do with what you are talking about.
Choices, Angel, life all comes down to choices. And those choices lead to the position we are both in.
That is true… that was a choice I made.. a choice that you wish you did.. that you wish you could.. but you didn’t…
When you murdered your wife, in front of your kids.
I don’t know what you are talking about.
Let it off your chest Angel, I can see its getting to you, you want to tell someone, you want to repent for your sins. I know your daddy was never around <sarcasm> I know you’ve had a tough life<sarcasm> You had every right to kill her, she was pissing you off, she wouldn’t listen to you. You are a man, you are a strong man, so just confess your sins, and you’ll be cleansed.
You’re not my priest. You are just a pathetic man. I see that ring on your finger, but I don’t see a happily married man, I see a lonely, desperate man.
Jackson looks away, trying not to engage.
This isn’t about me.
She left you didn’t she.
You don’t value life, do you Angel.
I love my family, I love my wife, I love my kids.
You don’t love yourself though do you Angel… and… Well… you have to value yourself… before you can value something else
You’re a lonely man detective, trying to place your own insecurities on someone else.
If you strip everything away from your life…everything that doesn’t matter…what are you left with…
Angel looks back blankly
Jackson stares him down
You love helping people don’t you detective, but how do you help people when you are in such desperate need of help yourself, I can see it all over yourself…You’re the one that needs help…You’re wife left you, you sit in the corner of your bedroom, alone at night, with your revolver in your mouth, hoping one day to pull the trigger… you lost your wife and now you want to seek revenge on me..and put me away for you losing your wife.. I had nothing to do with it… While I was in prison that whore was banging guys all over the neighbourhood, one of them did it, it wasn’t me.
You hated your wife didn’t you. Like you hated life.
I don’t hate life…or death… unlike you… you are so afraid of death you could never make a decision involving life and death. Could you? You are too weak. You are a weak man, and guys like me end your life.
Is that a threat?
You are so afraid of death, so afraid of what might come, you can’t even live in the moment. That’s why your wife left you didn’t she?
Tell me Angel, tell me why you killed your wife, your own son told me he saw you stab her in the kitchen. He asked you why you stabbed mommy. Your…own…son…8 years old and he sees his dad kill his mother… what hope does he have in his life now.
I love my wife
I understand Angel, I understand that a man can be pushed to do certain things, things he never ever considered, but a man has a breaking point. A tipping point, and if you get pushed far enough, then maybe you will do what you once thought you wouldn’t.
Trying to nail me for something I never did isn’t going to improve your life detective. You’ll never get back your wife, I’ll never get back mine, but I control my life, I control what happens, you don’t. That’s the difference between me and you detective. I don’t have to watch my back, while your constantly watching yours, afraid of what might happen. Well you’ve come after the wrong guy.
Just confess Angel. You’ll feel better.
I got nothing left to say. I want my lawyer.
Angel puts his head on the desk, his arms around it, as if he is sleeping.
Jackson walks out of the interrogation room in disgust.
Jackson walks away in disgust knowing he didn’t get the confession he needed to get nail Angel as the killer. He is going to walk free.
man continues writing on board.. Violence..sex..hate..small things..arguments…fame…celebrity…work..other peoples lives..
Man puts down black pen, picks up a red pen and pauses for a minute… the camera pans out…there are two lists…on the left violence etc on the right love etc… We can’t see what it says at the top of the lists… He can’t decide which column to write in… Then finally at the bottom of hope he writes “death” camera pulls back…<we only see angels black jacket in shot>
At the top of the white board… the two columns say.. What matters in life…what doesn’t matter in life… he wrote “death” in what matters in life..
As he walks away camera pulls further out…and a man lays on the floor dead it is Angel sans jacket…the man puts on his gloves he walks out of the shot… We see his face… it’s detective Jackson…dressed in Angels jacket..in the end he became Angel..to kill him.
Brooklyn Nine Nine’s first season was one of the strongest first seasons of a comedy in recent years. Most of the great comedy series have taken until season 2 or 3 to really hit their stride. Brooklyn 99 had started to gel as a comedy series halfway through the first season. The characters within the show were quickly established and the chemistry between the amazing ensemble cast had started to produce some hilarious episodes. Credit has to go to the writer/creators Dan Goor and Mike Schur. Having previously worked on The Office and Parks and Recreation it was clear the lessons they had learnt on these two shows helped them develop Brooklyn Nine Nine into a great comedy quickly. Juel Bestrop did some amazing casting. The most genius casting decision was hiring Andre Braugher.
Andre Braugher has done some outstanding work in drama and his work as Detective Frank Pembleton created one of America’s best television characters. There was actually a lot of comedy within Homicide and he continued some of that work in Men of a Certain Age. He can definitely pull off comedy but he has been a revelation in this series. The writers have used him well, giving him dramatic moments to ground the series and giving him outrageous comedic scenes that surprise and shock. Andre’s reaction to the statistical analysis of Moneyball was one of the series funniest scenes. Andy Samberg may have won a Golden Globe but Andre deserves an Emmy for his work in Brooklyn Nine Nine.
The show’s biggest problem in the first series was with it’s star Andy Samberg. It took a while to get the character of Jake Peralta right. Initially he was simply too silly, and when there was too much Peralta it took the show too far away from reality. Although developing the relationship with Santiago may have been an obvious choice the growth in their relationship through the first series helped the character a lot. Seeing Jake have a few more serious moments helped when he then does deliver some great comedy.
The first season had many great episodes. “The Party” was probably the best. Getting the series away from solving a weekly case proved to work wonders. The entire cast visiting Captain Holt at his home and trying to impress him produced some hilarious scenes. In this episode we also got to meet the Captain’s husband and learn that Holt’s friend actually he thinks he is one of the funniest people they know. The Party was the perfect mix of character development, great interactions between the cast members and sharp writing.
“The Pontiac Bandit” featured a great guest appearance from Craig Robinson. His obsession with Rosa provided some great laughs and it was a smartly written episode that hopefully leads to the return of Robinson in this role. He could prove a great nemesis for Jake.
“Old School” was a great episode which explored the cops of the past with their present day counterparts. It showed the police setting can actually really work for a comedy. Stacey Keach was excellent as an old beat reported comparing the rough cops of the 70s to the present day.
“Sal’s Pizza” featured fire marshal Boone played by Patton Oswalt. The rivalry between the cops and the fire department made for some great scenes as they fought over a case. It also featured Boyle talking about his weekly pizza email blasts and his reviews which take into account “mouth feel.” This was a great character development for Boyle, and was when Joe LoTruglio really started to shine on the show. He quickly started to stand out with his excellent display of physical comedy. I think when he got engaged it started to move away from his best work but thankfully that storyline has ended so we can get back to regular Boyle (not full Boyle).
The key to Brooklyn Nine Nine becoming a great comedy is really about making the audience care about the characters. I think they are well on their way to achieving that. If they can build on the first season they can maintain one of TV’s strongest comedies. Although the show has received great reviews from the critics it has struggled to find an audience. People may have started the show and given up or never given it a chance but if you buy the first season on DVD or Blu-Ray I can guarantee you will end up a fan.
The area of interest is crime drama. Specifically looking at the American Showtime series “Dexter” and its female demographic aged between 18 and 30. Dexter is a critically acclaimed series about a blood-spatter expert with the Miami police force who moonlights as a serial killer. Dexter operates by a code given to him by his foster father and only kills other serial killers.
A relevant text is “TV Drama in Transition” by Robin Nelson. Nelson (1997, pp 156) suggests the very best TV drama makes you think. It stops viewers in their tracks and draws them away from the newspaper and the distractions of domesticity. If a drama is framed just off-centre it demands viewers to see something afresh and challenges their accounts of the world (Nelson, 1997, pp.156). Nelson believes characters that draw people in display “the complexity of a characters’ motivation; the sense conveyed between mind and body, decision and action.” Nelson values matters of ethics. Ethical issues must be acknowledged as well as the pleasures generated from TV Drama. This is relevant to Dexter because the show makes viewers question their own ethics. Dexter is a likeable character but how does it make the audience feel when he kills other people. The fact that he has a code and only kills serial killers presents a real ethical dilemma. Nelson (1997, pp 230) places greater value on TV drama’s that “set criteria of critical reflection on human life and its values in general.” These dramas tend to engage viewers and open up new ways of seeing. Nelson does not suggest some TV Dramas are better than others but simply some shows have more to offer.
Graeme Burton’s Talking Television (2000) explores the television audience. Burton (2000, pp. 215) believes the audience uses television to gratify inner needs to do with the social aself and with self-image. He highlights the need for identity and reveals how people use television, in particular personalities and enacted roles in order to check out our sense of self and our social behaviours. This could be tied to the audience’s viewing of Dexter. They would view Dexter’s acts in order to check their own moral boundaries. Burton also looks at the effects of violent television. He describes effects such as catharsis in that violent television can get rid of violent feelings. Violent material can arouse people before the mood disappears. Other effects include imitation and desensitisation. The effects he discusses may provide some information on the appeal of a show like Dexter. Why do people watch a show about a serial killer? Burton suggests violence in real television can be more disturbing than violence in factual television. He also believes television may help in the understanding of violence in society. Burton suggests personal experience and context may have an effect on how the viewer perceives the narrative. He believes voice over work is used to naturalise the discourse. Dexter does use voice-overs by the main character to describe how he is feeling.
Patrick Barwise & Andrew Ehrenberg “Television and its Audience” is another appropriate text. Barwise & Ehrenberg (1998, pp. 25) highlights the fact that different programs are mostly watched by different people. Barwise & Ehrenberg (1998, pp. 26) suggest women spend more time watching television generally. Although the audience sizes for different programs can vary greatly, the make-up of these audiences tends to be broadly similar. There can however be exceptions for individual programs. Narrative programs, which have a continuing storyline benefit from developing plots, establishing characters over time and building audience appeal. This is an important point for Dexter. The first season of Dexter told 1 story about an “ice truck serial killer” over 13 episodes. Barwise & Ehrenberg (1998, pp. 25) state that some programs take longer to build an audience. Dexter more than doubled its audience from the pilot to the season finale. Barwise & Ehrenberg believe ongoing storylines or serials build a more loyal and habitual audience. They also assert that studies of audience appreciation show a strong link between how often people watch a given program and how much they like it. They also highlight a relationship between how much a program makes us think and how great an impact a show makes. Dexter is a high impact show, which leaves viewers talking.
Another relevant text to the general topic is “Women Viewing Violence” by Schlesinger, Dobash & Weaver. Schlesinger (1992, pp. 2) highlights the often-held concern that violent fictional representations bring about a deadening of public sensibilities. Schlesinger argues that factors such as age, sex, class background, and area of residence are all connected to the perceptions that audience members bring to bear upon their reading of crime and violence on television. Schelsinger (1992, pp. 9) suggests that for some members of the audience reactions to television violence involve an interaction with their experience of violence. Schelsinger (1992, pp. 164) also understands that for some women viewing televised violence may be seen as a depiction of a relatively abstract and distant act. Schelsinger determines that the viewing audience therefore becomes several viewing audiences. He points out that women are more afraid of violence, which distinguishes them from men. Excuses for the violence play a part, as well as the character and situations in which the violence occurs. This is a key point in the violence depicted in Dexter. Although he is a serial killer he has a strict moral code and does not harm innocent people. This may affect women’s viewing or attraction to the program.
Barrie Gunter “Television and the Fear of Crime” also deals with crime on television. Gunter (1997, pp. 1) asserts that the influence of television on public perceptions and fears of crime is not strong. Gunter also suggests people’s experience of crime effects how they view crime on television. He intimates that television drama can teach lessons about who wins and loses in conflicts and it may reveal an insight into the power structure of the world. Television can provide a symbolic environment to present a system of beliefs and values. Gunter (1997, pp. 8) believes television can change the outlook people have on the world. He also determines that violent crimes such as murder are actually over represented in US television. Typically crime shows tend to portray criminals as especially heinous. He concludes that crime drama shows are the most popular on television therefore mass audiences are regularly exposed to crime themes. The way Dexter is portrayed is different to most violent criminals. He is in fact shown in a sympathetic light, which perhaps sets the show apart from many crime dramas. Gunter reveals how viewers perceive and interpret programmes is very important. Viewers do not always read the same meanings into television content.
In Wendy Dennis’ article “The thinking woman’s killer” she details how attractive Dexter is to females. She points out that he is a serial killer who kills other serial killers and he is a great listener, so what’s not to love? She highlights how both men and women are captivated by Dexter but women seem to have a special affection for the character. Dennis reveals that half the show’s audience is in fact women. Dennis (2007, pp. 51) suggests Dexter is the thinking women’s serial killer who is kind to his co-workers; sweet to his girlfriend, great with her kids and supportive of his sister. Dennis emphasises that like all heroes Dexter lives by a code. He only targets the most violent criminals who slip through the judicial system. Other appealing characteristics for women are that he is very bright, he does very difficult work, and he is protective and a religious man. Dennis believes that for certain women serial killers have held a hypnotic fascination. Dennis (2007, pp. 52) believes most women don’t have it in themselves to kill so liking Dexter gives them license to go there. The fact that many people find themselves rooting for Dexter and hoping he doesn’t get caught is the appeal of the show. The fact that he kills such abhorrent people from pedophiles to those who dispose of immigrants allows the viewers to cut him some slack.
Great television drama presents ethical dilemmas. Television involving violence can have an impact on an audience and its own values and beliefs. Dexter manages to do this while appealing to a strong female demographic. My research question is what are females in the 18-30 age range fascination with Dexter and why are they watching the show?
Barwise, P. and A.Ehrenberg. 1988. Television and its Audience. London, California, New Delhi: Sage Publications
Burton, G. 2000. Talking Television. London: Arnold
Dennis, W. 2007. The Thinking Woman’s Killer. Maclean’s Vol. 120 Iss. 10. (March) :51-2
Gunter, B. 1987. Television and the Fear of Crime. London: John Libbey & Company.
Nelson, R. 1997. TV Drama in Transition: Forms, Values and Cultural Change. London, New York: Macmillan Press
Schlesinger, P., R.Dobash, R.E. Dobash and C. Weaver. 1992 Women Viewing Violence. London: BFI.
The Internet is continually gaining wider reach. More and more people can gain access to the Internet through personal computers, televisions, mobile phones and game consoles. The public’s access to the Internet in various forms will only increase over time.
Goldman (1995) highlights the Internets mix of immediacy, interactivity and accessibility. Those flexible characteristics are a reason for its growing appeal. The use of web-based platforms is a means for cheap and open access to discussion and debate. Mainstream press is largely one-way traffic and the old alternative media is limited in its ability to respond. Goldman (1995) believes the public discourse once carried out in places like Hyde Park is now carried out on the Internet, PC’s and laptops have taken the place of soapboxes and podiums. Old media focus on profit. Alternative media outlets instead place more importance on the message rather than the market. The Internet has provided alternative media with a wonderful tool to disseminate information.
The anti-capitalist movements use of Internet communications is an example of how the new media offer new spaces and mechanisms for radical political organization (Kellner, 2001). Bronstein believes radical political activism is reaching a global stage largely due communication technologies and the electronic transfer of information. Bronstein (2005) suggests that the prominence of independent websites and alternative media formats may mean traditional media is now obsolete for social movements.
Nick Couldry (2005) offers a view of an active and diverse global media landscape, where alternative media can challenge the mainstream by taking media production resources into their own hands. As the mainstream media failed to represent movement grievances it was left to activists to foster visibility. This in turn led to the pioneering use of communication technology including the creation of independent Websites that bring their view of globalization to the world. The Internet has been used to aid mobilization efforts. Greenpeace and unions are using the Internet to sway public opinion (Wim van de Donk, 2004).
Houston (2000) describes the Internet as being built as a delivery system. Non-profit and non-governmental agencies now offer comprehensive web sites and people can now access a wide variety of approaches to news on the Internet. Houston (2000) believes the Internet gives voice, training and exposure to people and communities who are otherwise not visible. Public access has given the opportunity for people whom have something to say to say it to anyone who cares to watch and listen. Couldry (2005) claims the Internet has enabled people in remote corners of the world to participate as global citizens. The audience has been a passive voice in old media (Bronstein, 2005). New communication technology has seen the advent of a fragmentation of the media. This has given the audience unaccustomed power over the communication process. The audience now has editorial control and unparalleled access. The Internet empowers sender and receiver and people now see themselves as in charge or setting the agenda (Hirst & Harrison, 2007).
Are information and communication technologies reaching all levels of society? Hirst & Harrison (2007) argues that the necessary infrastructure is still not available to some social groups and that it is now an insurmountable problem. Hirst (2007) mentions the slow uptake of the Internet amongst regional, female, indigenous, migrant and older sections in Australia. Martin Lister also argues that access to cyberspace remains a scarce resource, which is determined by economic and social power.
Lister believes that non-universal access is a feature of the Internet and that it will never be as powerful as the Television. With television we all shared the same kind of technology more or less, as opposed to the Internet. Advancements in software and computers create uneven access conditions. Those with the better communication technologies will have faster access to the Internet. The need to upgrade constantly leaves users with unequal levels of access. Lister believes the disparities to Internet access is based on economic inequalities. The digital divide reproduces the exact inequalities that are already prevalent in society. Barber (2006) suggests that those who might most benefit from the nets information potential are least likely to access to it. They do not have the tools to gain access and if they do, they don’t have the educational background to take advantage of them. Barber (2006) considers those with access tend to already be empowered in the system by education, income and literacy. Hirst (2007) suggests the demographic of the Internet using public is dominated by middle to upper class males. This creates a socio-cultural divide in access to new media technologies.
The Internet has changed landscape of the media. Online big city newspapers are competing with alternative web sites. Blogs have remained popular with the younger audience as they allow readers to post comments and directly participate. Computer bulletin boards are also another great tool on the Internet to facilitate discussion. Knowledge of media production and the ability to produce media and disseminate it to the public via the Internet is increasing. The consumer can become the producer via online journals, podcasts, vodcasts and personal home pages. Those who have been silenced or marginalized now have a greater ability to be heard when they speak. A good deal of civic discussion takes place on the Internet through public forums, online journalism and activist organizations (Dahlgren, 2004). We now have a single global economy, which has increased the reach of organizations (Lister, 2002). McChesney (1998) argues the Internet will not launch viable commercial competitors. He believes good journalism requires resources and institutional support. McChesney (1998) highlights the importance of a healthy non-profit and non-commercial media sector, independent of big business and government. Can the Internet provide this?
The Internet remains as an incomparable communicative civic space (Dahlgren, 2004). Dahlgren (2004) suggests it helps promote alternative public spheres that offer an empowering sense of what it means to be a citizen.
The old alternative media was unable to cover the current news of the day and they were only able to reach a small audience. The Internet has amazing speed and immediacy and empowers those who can use it to reach a mass audience quickly. The global communication and mobilization required using old media would be extremely costly and time consuming. The Internet is convenient and efficient. It can mobilize citizens, build new communities, increase political discourse, and public activism (Rosenkrands, 2004). While some social groups still do not have sufficient access to the Internet it still offers more legitimate forms of public access than old alternative media.
Barber, Benjamin R. “Pangloss, Pandora or Jefferson? Three scenarios for the future of technology and strong democracy.” In “The New Media Theory Reader” Open University Press: New York (2006)
Bronstein, Carolyn. “Journalism & Mass Communication Educator,” Columbia: Winter 2005. Vol.59, Iss. 4; pg. 427, 3 pgs
Couldry, Nick & Curran, James “Contesting Media Power” In “Journalism & Mass Communication Educator,” Columbia: Winter 2005
Dahlgren, Peter “Forward” In “Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements” Routledge: London, New York (2004)
Donk, Wim Van De, Loader, Brian D., Nixion, Paul G. & Rucht, Dieter “Introduction:social movements and ICTs” In “The New Media Theory Reader” Open University Press: New York (2006)
Hirst, Martin & Harrison, John “Communication and New Media” Oxford University Pres: Melbourne (2007)
Goldman, Debra. Adweek. (Eastern edition). New York: Sep 18, 1995. Vol.36, Iss. 38; pg. SS4, 5 pgs
Houston, Frank “Columbia Journalism Review” New York: Jul/Aug 2000. Vol.39, Iss. 2; pg. 22, 4 pgs
Kellner, Douglas “Techno-politics, new technologies, and the new public spheres,” in Illuminations, January (2001)
Lister, Martin “New media : a critical introduction” Routledge: London, New York (2002)
McChesney, Robert W., Wood, Ellen Meiksins & Foster, John Bellamy “Capitalism and the information age : the political economy of the global communication revolution” Monthly Review Press: New York (1998)
Rosenkrands, Jacob “Politizining Homo economicus: analysis of anti-corporate websites” In “Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements” Routledge: London, New York (2004)